Prediction with Model-Based Neutrality

Kazuto FUKUCHI  Toshihiro KAMISHIMA  Jun SAKUMA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E98-D   No.8   pp.1503-1516
Publication Date: 2015/08/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2014EDP7367
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
Keyword: 
neutrality,  fairness,  discrimination,  logistic regression,  linear regression,  classification,  regression,  social responsibility,  

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Summary: 
With recent developments in machine learning technology, the predictions by systems incorporating machine learning can now have a significant impact on the lives and activities of individuals. In some cases, predictions made by machine learning can result unexpectedly in unfair treatments to individuals. For example, if the results are highly dependent on personal attributes, such as gender or ethnicity, hiring decisions might be discriminatory. This paper investigates the neutralization of a probabilistic model with respect to another probabilistic model, referred to as a viewpoint. We present a novel definition of neutrality for probabilistic models, η-neutrality, and introduce a systematic method that uses the maximum likelihood estimation to enforce the neutrality of a prediction model. Our method can be applied to various machine learning algorithms, as demonstrated by η-neutral logistic regression and η-neutral linear regression.