Specific Absorption Rates and Temperature Elevations due to Wireless Radio Terminals in Proximity to a Fetus at Gestational Ages of 13, 18, and 26 Weeks

Akihiro TATENO  Shimpei AKIMOTO  Tomoaki NAGAOKA  Kazuyuki SAITO  Soichi WATANABE  Masaharu TAKAHASHI  Koichi ITO  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E97-B   No.10   pp.2175-2183
Publication Date: 2014/10/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.E97.B.2175
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Electromagnetic Compatibility(EMC)
Keyword: 
fetus,  specific absorption rate (SAR),  temperature elevation,  wireless radio terminals,  finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method,  

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Summary: 
As the electromagnetic (EM) environment is becoming increasingly diverse, it is essential to estimate specific absorption rates (SARs) and temperature elevations of pregnant females and their fetuses under various exposure situations. This study presents calculated SARs and temperature elevations in a fetus exposed to EM waves. The calculations involved numerical models for the anatomical structures of a pregnant Japanese woman at gestational stages of 13, 18, and 26 weeks; the EM source was a wireless portable terminal placed close to the abdomen of the pregnant female model. The results indicate that fetal SARs and temperature elevations are closely related to the position of the fetus relative to the EM source. We also found that, although the fetal SAR caused by a half-wavelength dipole antenna is sometimes comparable to or slightly more than the International Commission Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines, it is lower than the guideline level in more realistic situations, such as when a planar inverted-F antenna is used. Furthermore, temperature elevations were significantly below the threshold set to prevent the child from being born with developmental disabilities.