Fast SAO Estimation Algorithm and Its Implementation for 8K×4K @ 120 FPS HEVC Encoding

Jiayi ZHU  Dajiang ZHOU  Shinji KIMURA  Satoshi GOTO  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E97-A   No.12   pp.2488-2497
Publication Date: 2014/12/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1587/transfun.E97.A.2488
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on VLSI Design and CAD Algorithms)
Category: High-Level Synthesis and System-Level Design
Keyword: 
high efficiency video coding,  sample adaptive offset,  Rate Distortion Optimization (RDO) VLSI architecture,  

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Summary: 
High efficiency video coding (HEVC) is the new generation video compression standard. Sample adaptive offset (SAO) is a new compression tool adopted in HEVC which reduces the distortion between original samples and reconstructed samples. SAO estimation is the process of determining SAO parameters in video encoding. It is divided into two phases: statistic collection and parameters determination. There are two difficulties for VLSI implementation of SAO estimation. The first is that there are huge amount of samples to deal with in statistic collection phase. The other is that the complexity of Rate Distortion Optimization (RDO) in parameters determination phase is very high. In this article, a fast SAO estimation algorithm and its corresponding VLSI architecture are proposed. For the first difficulty, we use bitmaps to collect statistics of all the 16 samples in one 4×4 block simultaneously. For the second difficulty, we simplify a series of complicated procedures in HM to balance the algorithms complexity and BD-rate performance. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm maintains the picture quality improvement. The VLSI design based on this algorithm can be implemented using 156.32K gates, 8,832bits single port RAM for 8bits depth case. It can be synthesized to 400MHz @ 65nm technology and is capable of 8K×4K @ 120fps encoding.