Using MathML Parallel Markup Corpora for Semantic Enrichment of Mathematical Expressions

Minh-Quoc NGHIEM  Giovanni YOKO KRISTIANTO  Akiko AIZAWA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E96-D   No.8   pp.1707-1715
Publication Date: 2013/08/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.E96.D.1707
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Data Engineering, Web Information Systems
Keyword: 
semantic enrichment,  MathML markup,  statistical machine translation,  

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Summary: 
This paper explores the problem of semantic enrichment of mathematical expressions. We formulate this task as the translation of mathematical expressions from presentation markup to content markup. We use MathML, an application of XML, to describe both the structure and content of mathematical notations. We apply a method based on statistical machine translation to extract translation rules automatically. This approach contrasts with previous research, which tends to rely on manually encoded rules. We also introduce segmentation rules used to segment mathematical expressions. Combining segmentation rules and translation rules strengthens the translation system and archives significant improvements over a prior rule-based system.