A Bayesian Framework Using Multiple Model Structures for Speech Recognition

Sayaka SHIOTA  Kei HASHIMOTO  Yoshihiko NANKAKU  Keiichi TOKUDA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E96-D   No.4   pp.939-948
Publication Date: 2013/04/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.E96.D.939
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Speech and Hearing
speech recognition,  acoustic modeling,  Bayesian approach,  model structure integration,  deterministic annealing,  

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This paper proposes an acoustic modeling technique based on Bayesian framework using multiple model structures for speech recognition. The aim of the Bayesian approach is to obtain good prediction of observation by marginalizing all variables related to generative processes. Although the effectiveness of marginalizing model parameters was recently reported in speech recognition, most of these systems use only “one” model structure, e.g., topologies of HMMs, the number of states and mixtures, types of state output distributions, and parameter tying structures. However, it is insufficient to represent a true model distribution, because a family of such models usually does not include a true distribution in most practical cases. One of solutions of this problem is to use multiple model structures. Although several approaches using multiple model structures have already been proposed, the consistent integration of multiple model structures based on the Bayesian approach has not seen in speech recognition. This paper focuses on integrating multiple phonetic decision trees based on the Bayesian framework in HMM based acoustic modeling. The proposed method is derived from a new marginal likelihood function which includes the model structures as a latent variable in addition to HMM state sequences and model parameters, and the posterior distributions of these latent variables are obtained using the variational Bayesian method. Furthermore, to improve the optimization algorithm, the deterministic annealing EM (DAEM) algorithm is applied to the training process. The proposed method effectively utilizes multiple model structures, especially in the early stage of training and this leads to better predictive distributions and improvement of recognition performance.