Robust Multi-Bit Watermarking for Free-View Television Using Light Field Rendering

Huawei TIAN  Yao ZHAO  Zheng WANG  Rongrong NI  Lunming QIN  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E96-D   No.12   pp.2820-2829
Publication Date: 2013/12/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.E96.D.2820
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Image Processing and Video Processing
free-view television,  light field rendering,  3-D watermarking,  

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With the rapid development of multi-view video coding (MVC) and light field rendering (LFR), Free-View Television (FTV) has emerged as new entrainment equipment, which can bring more immersive and realistic feelings for TV viewers. In FTV broadcasting system, the TV-viewer can freely watch a realistic arbitrary view of a scene generated from a number of original views. In such a scenario, the ownership of the multi-view video should be verified not only on the original views, but also on any virtual view. However, capacities of existing watermarking schemes as copyright protection methods for LFR-based FTV are only one bit, i.e., presence or absence of the watermark, which seriously impacts its usage in practical scenarios. In this paper, we propose a robust multi-bit watermarking scheme for LFR-based free-view video. The direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) watermark is constructed according to the multi-bit message and embedded into DCT domain of each view frame. The message can be extracted bit-by-bit from a virtual frame generated at an arbitrary view-point with a correlation detector. Furthermore, we mathematically prove that the watermark can be detected from any virtual view. Experimental results also show that the watermark in FTV can be successfully detected from a virtual view. Moreover, the proposed watermark method is robust against common signal processing attacks, such as Gaussian filtering, salt & peppers noising, JPEG compression, and center cropping.