Distributed Power Control Network and Green Building Test-Bed for Demand Response in Smart Grid

Kei SAKAGUCHI  Van Ky NGUYEN  Yu TAO  Gia Khanh TRAN  Kiyomichi ARAKI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E96-A   No.5   pp.896-907
Publication Date: 2013/05/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1587/transfun.E96.A.896
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Networked Control Systems: Theories & Applications)
smart grid,  hierarchical power control network,  distributed control algorithm,  demand response,  communication latency,  IEEE802.15.4g,  

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It is known that demand and supply power balancing is an essential method to operate power delivery system and prevent blackouts caused by power shortage. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of demand response strategy to save power during peak hours by using Smart Grid. It is obviously impractical with centralized power control network to realize the real-time control performance, where a single central controller measures the huge metering data and sends control command back to all customers. For that purpose, we propose a new architecture of hierarchical distributed power control network which is scalable regardless of the network size. The sub-controllers are introduced to partition the large system into smaller distributed clusters where low-latency local feedback power control loops are conducted to guarantee control stability. Furthermore, sub-controllers are stacked up in an hierarchical manner such that data are fed back layer-by-layer in the inbound while in the outbound control responses are decentralized in each local sub-controller for realizing the global objectives. Numerical simulations in a realistic scenario of up to 5000 consumers show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme to achieve a desired 10% peak power saving by using off-the-shelf wireless devices with IEEE802.15.4g standard. In addition, a small-scale power control system for green building test-bed is implemented to demonstrate the potential use of the proposed scheme for power saving in real life.