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Class-Distance-Based Discriminant Analysis and Its Application to Supervised Automatic Age Estimation
Tetsuji OGAWA Kazuya UEKI Tetsunori KOBAYASHI
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems
Publication Date: 2011/08/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
FDA, LFDA, CDDA, LCDDA, dimensionality reduction, automatic age estimation,
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We propose a novel method of supervised feature projection called class-distance-based discriminant analysis (CDDA), which is suitable for automatic age estimation (AAE) from facial images. Most methods of supervised feature projection, e.g., Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) and local Fisher discriminant analysis (LFDA), focus on determining whether two samples belong to the same class (i.e., the same age in AAE) or not. Even if an estimated age is not consistent with the correct age in AAE systems, i.e., the AAE system induces error, smaller errors are better. To treat such characteristics in AAE, CDDA determines between-class separability according to the class distance (i.e., difference in ages); two samples with similar ages are imposed to be close and those with spaced ages are imposed to be far apart. Furthermore, we propose an extension of CDDA called local CDDA (LCDDA), which aims at handling multimodality in samples. Experimental results revealed that CDDA and LCDDA could extract more discriminative features than FDA and LFDA.