Measurement of Ultra Wideband Radar Cross Sections of an Automobile at Ka Band Using Circular Polarizations

Hideyuki OSAKI  Takehiko NISHIDE  Takehiko KOBAYASHI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E91-A   No.11   pp.3190-3196
Publication Date: 2008/11/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1093/ietfec/e91-a.11.3190
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Wideband Systems)
ultra wideband,  vehicular radar,  radar cross section,  automobile,  circular polarization,  

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Ultra wideband (UWB) radar cross sections (RCSs) of several targets have been measured using various combinations of transmitting and receiving linear polarizations (V-V, H-H, and +45- -45) with a view to obtaining information on the design of vehicular short-range radars. This paper reports the UWB RCSs (σLR and σLL) of a typical passenger automobile using two circular polarization combinations (L and R denote left and right circular polarizations). The wideband measurements were carried out with use of a vector network analyzer by sweeping the frequency from 24.5 to 28.8 GHz in a radio anechoic chamber. The UWB RCSs were derived by integrating the received power in the frequency domain. Similar to the linear polarization results, fluctuations of the RCSs were smaller in the UWB than in narrowband for both L-R and L-L, because the ultra-wide bandwidth cancels out RCS plunges caused by narrowband interference among reflected waves from various facets of the target. The median of (σLR- σLL) was 2 dB, while the median of (σHH - σ+45 - -45) or (σVV+45- -45) was 6 dB. This is because the body of the automobile comprises a number of smaller scattering objects yielding σ LL, either similar to the corner reflectors or asymmetrical to the radar boresight. Frequency-domain responses showed a number of notches caused by the interference between numerous reflecting waves having power levels of a similar order and different round-trip path lengths. Some representative reflective parts of the automobile were identified through analyses of time-domain responses.