Composite Support Vector Machines with Extended Discriminative Features for Accurate Face Detection

Tae-Kyun KIM  Josef KITTLER  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E88-D   No.10   pp.2373-2379
Publication Date: 2005/10/01
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 10.1093/ietisy/e88-d.10.2373
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
Keyword: 
pattern classification,  face detection,  support vector machine,  independent component analysis,  principal component analysis,  Adaboost,  

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Summary: 
This paper describes a pattern classifier for detecting frontal-view faces via learning a decision boundary. The proposed classifier consists of two major parts for improving classification accuracy: the implicit modeling of both the face and the near-face classes resulting in an extended discriminative feature set, and the subsequent composite Support Vector Machines (SVMs) for speeding up the classification. For the extended discriminative feature set, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is performed for the face and near-face classes separately. The projections and distances to the two different subspaces are complementary, which significantly enhances classification accuracy of SVM. Multiple nonlinear SVMs are trained for the local facial feature spaces considering the general multi-modal characteristic of the face space. Each component SVM has a simpler boundary than that of a single SVM for the whole face space. The most appropriate component SVM is selected by a gating mechanism based on clustering. The classification by utilizing one of the multiple SVMs guarantees good generalization performance and speeds up face detection. The proposed classifier is finally implemented to work in real-time by cascading a boosting based face detector.