Snowfall Characteristics Observed by Weather Radars, an Optical Lidar and a Video Camera

Henri SERVOMAA  Ken-ichiro MURAMOTO  Toru SHIINA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E85-D   No.8   pp.1314-1324
Publication Date: 2002/08/01
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Image Processing, Image Pattern Recognition
Keyword: 
snowfall,  flake size distribution,  weather radar,  lidar,  image processing,  

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Summary: 
This paper introduces an automatic and multi-instrument snowfall observation system and proposes techniques that could be used in the estimation of snowfall characteristics. The instruments used in this study include two microwave radars, an optical lidar, a CCD camera based imaging system and high-accuracy electrical balances for reference data. The emphasis has been on obtaining good temporal resolution and synchronization accuracy of separate datasets. In most research done so far, this has not been a principal point, either because only very long snowfall events have been measured, or wide area estimates were desired, or due to limitations in manual sampling methods and other technical issues. The measurements were also contained in a small area to make sure that all instruments record data from the same target. One radar and the optical lidar recorded an atmospheric profile up to 6000 m, while the other radar, the imaging system and the two balances recorded snowfall on the ground level. The combination of optical, microwave and direct visual observations of snowfall show that a change in cloud conditions can result in snowfall having different characteristics. The lidar backscatter was used as main indicator of transitions in cloud conditions. A direct visual evaluation of snowflake size distribution using a CCD camera shows that it is extremely helpful in order to interpret radar data. The camera observed velocity distribution showed no large variations between snowfall events, however, it could be useful in detecting graupel and hail precipitations which have much faster terminal velocities. This paper will conclude with a discussion on further elaborating the use of lidar and visual data to complement radar observations of snowfall.