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Image Manipulation Specifications on Social Networking Services for Encryption-then-Compression Systems
Tatsuya CHUMAN Kenta IIDA Warit SIRICHOTEDUMRONG Hitoshi KIYA
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems
Publication Date: 2019/01/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Enriched Multimedia — Making Multimedia More Convenient and Safer —)
JPEG, image encryption, EtC system, social media,
Full Text: PDF(1.2MB)
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Encryption-then-Compression (EtC) systems have been proposed to securely transmit images through an untrusted channel provider. In this study, EtC systems were applied to social media like Twitter that carry out image manipulations. The block scrambling-based encryption schemes used in EtC systems were evaluated in terms of their robustness against image manipulation on social media. The aim was to investigate how five social networking service (SNS) providers, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Tumblr and Flickr, manipulate images and to determine whether the encrypted images uploaded to SNS providers can avoid being distorted by such manipulations. In an experiment, encrypted and non-encrypted JPEG images were uploaded to various SNS providers. The results show that EtC systems are applicable to the five SNS providers.