Improvement of Anomaly Detection Performance Using Packet Flow Regularity in Industrial Control Networks

Kensuke TAMURA  Kanta MATSUURA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E102-A   No.1   pp.65-73
Publication Date: 2019/01/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1587/transfun.E102.A.65
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Cryptography and Information Security)
Category: 
Keyword: 
industrial control systems,  anomaly detection,  natural language processing,  machine learning,  word2vec,  

Full Text: FreePDF(978KB)


Summary: 
Since cyber attacks such as cyberterrorism against Industrial Control Systems (ICSs) and cyber espionage against companies managing them have increased, the techniques to detect anomalies in early stages are required. To achieve the purpose, several studies have developed anomaly detection methods for ICSs. In particular, some techniques using packet flow regularity in industrial control networks have achieved high-accuracy detection of attacks disrupting the regularity, i.e. normal behaviour, of ICSs. However, these methods cannot identify scanning attacks employed in cyber espionage because the probing packets assimilate into a number of normal ones. For example, the malware called Havex is customised to clandestinely acquire information from targeting ICSs using general request packets. The techniques to detect such scanning attacks using widespread packets await further investigation. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine high performance methods to identify anomalies even if elaborate packets to avoid alert systems were employed for attacks against industrial control networks. In this paper, a novel detection model for anomalous packets concealing behind normal traffic in industrial control networks was proposed. For the proposal of the sophisticated detection method, we took particular note of packet flow regularity and employed the Markov-chain model to detect anomalies. Moreover, we regarded not only original packets but similar ones to them as normal packets to reduce false alerts because it was indicated that an anomaly detection model using the Markov-chain suffers from the ample false positives affected by a number of normal, irregular packets, namely noise. To calculate the similarity between packets based on the packet flow regularity, a vector representation tool called word2vec was employed. Whilst word2vec is utilised for the culculation of word similarity in natural language processing tasks, we applied the technique to packets in ICSs to calculate packet similarity. As a result, the Markov-chain with word2vec model identified scanning packets assimulating into normal packets in higher performance than the conventional Markov-chain model. In conclusion, employing both packet flow regularity and packet similarity in industrial control networks contributes to improving the performance of anomaly detection in ICSs.