Drift-Free Tracking Surveillance Based on Online Latent Structured SVM and Kalman Filter Modules

Yung-Yao CHEN  Yi-Cheng ZHANG  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E101-D   No.2   pp.491-503
Publication Date: 2018/02/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2017EDP7190
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
object tracking,  support vector machine (SVM),  latent structured SVM,  online learning,  Kalman filter,  hierarchical search,  

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Tracking-by-detection methods consider tracking task as a continuous detection problem applied over video frames. Modern tracking-by-detection trackers have online learning ability; the update stage is essential because it determines how to modify the classifier inherent in a tracker. However, most trackers search for the target within a fixed region centered at the previous object position; thus, they lack spatiotemporal consistency. This becomes a problem when the tracker detects an incorrect object during short-term occlusion. In addition, the scale of the bounding box that contains the target object is usually assumed not to change. This assumption is unrealistic for long-term tracking, where the scale of the target varies as the distance between the target and the camera changes. The accumulation of errors resulting from these shortcomings results in the drift problem, i.e. drifting away from the target object. To resolve this problem, we present a drift-free, online learning-based tracking-by-detection method using a single static camera. We improve the latent structured support vector machine (SVM) tracker by designing a more robust tracker update step by incorporating two Kalman filter modules: the first is used to predict an adaptive search region in consideration of the object motion; the second is used to adjust the scale of the bounding box by accounting for the background model. We propose a hierarchical search strategy that combines Bhattacharyya coefficient similarity analysis and Kalman predictors. This strategy facilitates overcoming occlusion and increases tracking efficiency. We evaluate this work using publicly available videos thoroughly. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art trackers.