Deep Relational Model: A Joint Probabilistic Model with a Hierarchical Structure for Bidirectional Estimation of Image and Labels


IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E101-D   No.2   pp.428-436
Publication Date: 2018/02/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2017EDP7149
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
image classification,  image generation,  deep learning,  generative model,  Boltzmann distribution,  

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Two different types of representations, such as an image and its manually-assigned corresponding labels, generally have complex and strong relationships to each other. In this paper, we represent such deep relationships between two different types of visible variables using an energy-based probabilistic model, called a deep relational model (DRM) to improve the prediction accuracies. A DRM stacks several layers from one visible layer on to another visible layer, sandwiching several hidden layers between them. As with restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) and deep Boltzmann machines (DBMs), all connections (weights) between two adjacent layers are undirected. During maximum likelihood (ML) -based training, the network attempts to capture the latent complex relationships between two visible variables with its deep architecture. Unlike deep neural networks (DNNs), 1) the DRM is a totally generative model and 2) allows us to generate one visible variables given the other, and 2) the parameters can be optimized in a probabilistic manner. The DRM can be also fine-tuned using DNNs, like deep belief nets (DBNs) or DBMs pre-training. This paper presents experiments conduced to evaluate the performance of a DRM in image recognition and generation tasks using the MNIST data set. In the image recognition experiments, we observed that the DRM outperformed DNNs even without fine-tuning. In the image generation experiments, we obtained much more realistic images generated from the DRM more than those from the other generative models.