View Priority Based Threads Allocation and Binary Search Oriented Reweight for GPU Accelerated Real-Time 3D Ball Tracking

Yilin HOU  Ziwei DENG  Xina CHENG  Takeshi IKENAGA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E101-D   No.12   pp.3190-3198
Publication Date: 2018/12/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2018EDP7125
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
Keyword: 
real-time,  Graphics Processing Unit (GPU),  parallelism,  thread allocation,  particle filter,  ball tracking,  

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Summary: 
In real-time 3D ball tracking of sports analysis in computer vision technology, complex algorithms which assure the accuracy could be time-consuming. Particle filter based algorithm has a large potential to accelerate since the algorithm between particles has the chance to be paralleled in heterogeneous CPU-GPU platform. Still, with the target multi-view 3D ball tracking algorithm, challenges exist: 1) serial flowchart for each step in the algorithm; 2) repeated processing for multiple views' processing; 3) the low degree of parallelism in reweight and resampling steps for sequential processing. On the CPU-GPU platform, this paper proposes the double stream system flow, the view priority based threads allocation, and the binary search oriented reweight. Double stream system flow assigns tasks which there is no data dependency exists into different streams for each frame processing to achieve parallelism in system structure level. View priority based threads allocation manipulates threads in multi-view observation task. Threads number is view number multiplied by particles number, and with view priority assigning, which could help both memory accessing and computing achieving parallelism. Binary search oriented reweight reduces the time complexity by avoiding to generate cumulative distribution function and uses an unordered array to implement a binary search. The experiment is based on videos which record the final game of an official volleyball match (2014 Inter-High School Games of Men's Volleyball held in Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium in Aug. 2014) and the test sequences are taken by multiple-view system which is made of 4 cameras locating at the four corners of the court. The success rate achieves 99.23% which is the same as target algorithm while the time consumption has been accelerated from 75.1ms/frame in CPU environment to 3.05ms/frame in the proposed system which is 24.62 times speed up, also, it achieves 2.33 times speedup compared with basic GPU implemented work.