Design Exploration of SHA-3 ASIP for IoT on a 32-bit RISC-V Processor

Jinli RAO  Tianyong AO  Shu XU  Kui DAI  Xuecheng ZOU  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E101-D   No.11   pp.2698-2705
Publication Date: 2018/11/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2017ICP0019
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Information and Communication System Security)
Category: Cryptographic Techniques
SHA-3,  application specific instruction-set processor,  RISC-V,  IoT,  

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Data integrity is a key metric of security for Internet of Things (IoT) which refers to accuracy and reliability of data during transmission, storage and retrieval. Cryptographic hash functions are common means used for data integrity verification. Newly announced SHA-3 is the next generation hash function standard to replace existing SHA-1 and SHA-2 standards for better security. However, its underlying Keccak algorithm is computation intensive and thus limits its deployment on IoT systems which are normally equipped with 32-bit resource constrained embedded processors. This paper proposes two efficient SHA-3 ASIPs based on an open 32-bit RISC-V embedded processor named Z-scale. The first operation-oriented ASIP (OASIP) focuses on accelerating time-consuming operations with instruction set extensions to improve resource efficiency. And next datapath-oriented ASIP (DASIP) targets exploiting advance data and instruction level parallelism with extended auxiliary registers and customized datapath to achieve high performance. Implementation results show that both proposed ASIPs can effectively accelerate SHA-3 algorithm with 14.6% and 26.9% code size reductions, 30% and 87% resource efficiency improvements, 71% and 262% better maximum throughputs as well as 40% and 288% better power efficiencies than reference design. This work makes SHA-3 algorithm integration practical for both low-cost and high-performance IoT systems.