3-D Imaging Using SAR Tomography with Pi-SAR2-X Dataset

Masanori GOCHO  Hiroyoshi YAMADA  Motofumi ARII  Shoichiro KOJIMA  Ryoichi SATO  Yoshio YAMAGUCHI  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E101-B   No.2   pp.409-417
Publication Date: 2018/02/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Recent Progress in Antennas and Propagation in Conjunction with Main Topics of ISAP2016)
Category: Remote Sensing
Keyword: 
SAR tomography,  TomoSAR,  3-D imaging,  calibration,  Pi-SAR2-X,  

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Summary: 
SAR tomography is one of the methods that can perform 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging with multiple SAR datasets by using the Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation technique to estimate the height distribution of scatterers. Several reports on SAR tomography have been issued. However, experimental results of the SAR tomography by the Pi-SAR2-X, Japanese airborne SAR operated by the NICT, have not been reported yet. This paper is the first to report the results of experiments on the Japanese SAR platform. High-resolution 2-dimensional image can be obtained by the X-band SAR. However the image is generated by projecting 3-D objects in to a 2-D image plane, hence the target responses having the same slant-range distance locate at the same image pixel. This is well known as the layover problem. When we employ the X-band SAR tomography, we can obtain 3-D high-resolution images without the layover and also foreshortening problem. It will be useful for disaster damage monitoring, especially in urban areas. The main difficulty of the SAR tomography comes from the phase error caused by inaccurate flight-path data. In many cases, the dataset are preprocessed and compensated so as to parallelize their flight-path to carry out the phase calibration and the DOA estimation easily. However, it is often difficult for common users to obtain such preprocessed datasets. In this paper, we propose a simple calibration method by using a flat-surface area with known altitude. Experiments show that the proposed method is effective for the Pi-SAR2-X standard products without parallelized preprocessing or precise flight-path information.