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Text-Independent Online Writer Identification Using Hidden Markov Models
Yabei WU Huanzhang LU Zhiyong ZHANG
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems
Publication Date: 2017/02/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Human-computer Interaction
online handwriting, text-independent writer identification, HMM,
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In text-independent online writer identification, the Gaussian Mixture Model(GMM) writer model trained with the GMM-Universal Background Model(GMM-UBM) framework has acquired excellent performance. However, the system assumes the items in the observation sequence are independent, which neglects the dynamic information between observations. This work shows that although in the text-independent application, the dynamic information between observations is still important for writer identification. In order to extend the GMM-UBM system to use the dynamic information, the hidden Markov model(HMM) with Gaussian observation model is used to model each writer's handwriting in this paper and a new training schematic is proposed. In particular, the observation model parameters of the writer specific HMM are set with the Gaussian component parameters of the GMM writer model trained with the GMM-UBM framework and the state transition matrix parameters are learned from the writer specific data. Experiments show that incorporating the dynamic information is capable of improving the performance of the GMM-based system and the proposed training method is effective for learning the HMM writer model.