Partially Wildcarded Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption and Its Performance Evaluation

Go OHTAKE  Kazuto OGAWA  Goichiro HANAOKA  Shota YAMADA  Kohei KASAMATSU  Takashi YAMAKAWA  Hideki IMAI  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E100-A   No.9   pp.1846-1856
Publication Date: 2017/09/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications)
Category: 
Keyword: 
attribute-based encryption,  ciphertext policy,  wildcard,  

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Summary: 
Attribute-based encryption (ABE) enables flexible data access control based on attributes and policies. In ciphertext-policy ABE (CP-ABE), a secret key is associated with a set of attributes and a policy is associated with a ciphertext. If the set of attributes satisfies the policy, the ciphertext can be decrypted. CP-ABE can be applied to a variety of services such as access control for file sharing systems and content distribution services. However, a CP-ABE scheme usually has larger costs for encryption and decryption than conventional public-key encryption schemes due to flexible policy setting. In particular, wildcards, which mean that certain attributes are not relevant to the ciphertext policy, are not essential for a certain service. In this paper, we propose a partially wildcarded CP-ABE scheme with a lower encryption and decryption cost. In our scheme, user's attributes are separated into those requiring wildcards and those not requiring wildcards. Our scheme embodies a CP-ABE scheme with a wildcard functionality and an efficient CP-ABE scheme without wildcard functionality. We show that our scheme is provably secure under the DBDH assumption. Then, we compare our scheme with the conventional CP-ABE schemes and describe a content distribution service as an application of our scheme. Also, we implement our scheme on a PC and measure the processing time. The result shows that our scheme can reduce all of the costs for key generation, encryption, and decryption as much as possible.