A Loitering Discovery System Using Efficient Similarity Search Based on Similarity Hierarchy

Jianquan LIU  Shoji NISHIMURA  Takuya ARAKI  Yuichi NAKAMURA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E100-A   No.2   pp.367-375
Publication Date: 2017/02/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
Type of Manuscript: INVITED PAPER (Special Section on Mathematical Systems Science and its Applications)
similarity search,  loitering discovery,  indexing,  video surveillance,  multimedia database,  

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Similarity search is an important and fundamental problem, and thus widely used in various fields of computer science including multimedia, computer vision, database, information retrieval, etc. Recently, since loitering behavior often leads to abnormal situations, such as pickpocketing and terrorist attacks, its analysis attracts increasing attention from research communities. In this paper, we present AntiLoiter, a loitering discovery system adopting efficient similarity search on surveillance videos. As we know, most of existing systems for loitering analysis, mainly focus on how to detect or identify loiterers by behavior tracking techniques. However, the difficulties of tracking-based methods are known as that their analysis results are heavily influenced by occlusions, overlaps, and shadows. Moreover, tracking-based methods need to track the human appearance continuously. Therefore, existing methods are not readily applied to real-world surveillance cameras due to the appearance discontinuity of criminal loiterers. To solve this problem, we abandon the tracking method, instead, propose AntiLoiter to efficiently discover loiterers based on their frequent appearance patterns in longtime multiple surveillance videos. In AntiLoiter, we propose a novel data structure Luigi that indexes data using only similarity value returned by a corresponding function (e.g., face matching). Luigi is adopted to perform efficient similarity search to realize loitering discovery. We conducted extensive experiments on both synthetic and real surveillance videos to evaluate the efficiency and efficacy of our approach. The experimental results show that our system can find out loitering candidates correctly and outperforms existing method by 100 times in terms of runtime.