Keyword : localization


GNSS Correction Using Altitude Map and Its Integration with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning
Yuyang HUANG Li-Ta HSU Yanlei GU Shunsuke KAMIJO 
Publication:   
Publication Date: 2018/08/01
Vol. E101-A  No. 8 ; pp. 1245-1256
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Intelligent Transport System
Keyword: 
GNSSaltitude maplocalizationnavigationpedestrian dead reckoning
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(7MB)

Reliable Position Estimation by Parallelized Processing in Kinematic Positioning for Single Frequency GNSS Receiver
Hiromi IN Hiroyuki HATANO Masahiro FUJII Atsushi ITO Yu WATANABE 
Publication:   
Publication Date: 2018/07/01
Vol. E101-A  No. 7 ; pp. 1083-1091
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Intelligent Transport System
Keyword: 
ITSkinematicGNSSlocalizationbarometerDoppler frequency
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(1.9MB)

Data Association and Localization of Multiple Radio Sources Using DOA and Received Signal Power by a Single Moving Passive Sensor
Takeshi AMISHIMA Toshio WAKAYAMA 
Publication:   
Publication Date: 2018/05/01
Vol. E101-B  No. 5 ; pp. 1336-1345
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Sensing
Keyword: 
direction-of-arrival (DOA)received signal strength indicator (RSSI)localizationassociation
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(2.4MB)

RSSI-Based Localization Using Wireless Beacon with Three-Element Array
Ryota TAZAWA Naoki HONMA Atsushi MIURA Hiroto MINAMIZAWA 
Publication:   
Publication Date: 2018/02/01
Vol. E101-B  No. 2 ; pp. 400-408
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Recent Progress in Antennas and Propagation in Conjunction with Main Topics of ISAP2016)
Category: DOA Estimation
Keyword: 
RSSIwireless beaconDOD estimationlocalization
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(3.5MB)

Compressive Sensing Meets Dictionary Mismatch: Taylor Approximation-Based Adaptive Dictionary Algorithm for Multiple Target Localization in WSNs
Yan GUO Baoming SUN Ning LI Peng QIAN 
Publication:   
Publication Date: 2017/08/01
Vol. E100-B  No. 8 ; pp. 1397-1405
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Network
Keyword: 
wireless sensor networkscompressive sensingdictionary mismatchadaptive dictionaryTaylor approximationlocalization
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(685.9KB)

Affinity Propagation Algorithm Based Multi-Source Localization Method for Binary Detection
Yan WANG Long CHENG Jian ZHANG 
Publication:   
Publication Date: 2017/08/01
Vol. E100-D  No. 8 ; pp. 1916-1919
Type of Manuscript:  LETTER
Category: Information Network
Keyword: 
wireless sensor networkbinary detectionmulti-sourcelocalizationaffinity propagation
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(394.1KB)

Hybrid TOA/RSSI-Based Wireless Capsule Endoscope Localization with Relative Permittivity Estimation
Takahiro ITO Daisuke ANZAI Jianqing WANG 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2016/11/01
Vol. E99-B  No. 11 ; pp. 2442-2449
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Wireless Communication Technologies
Keyword: 
WCElocalizationBANTOARSSIparticle filter
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(2.3MB)

Indoor Positioning Based on Fingerprinting Method by Incoming GPS Signals
Masayuki OCHIAI Hiroyuki HATANO Masahiro FUJII Atsushi ITO Yu WATANABE 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2016/01/01
Vol. E99-A  No. 1 ; pp. 319-322
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section LETTER (Special Section on Intelligent Transport Systems)
Category: 
Keyword: 
indoor positioningGNSSGPSfingerprintinglocalization
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(1.1MB)

Hybrid TDOA and AOA Localization Using Constrained Least Squares
Jungkeun OH Kyunghyun LEE Kwanho YOU 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2015/12/01
Vol. E98-A  No. 12 ; pp. 2713-2718
Type of Manuscript:  LETTER
Category: Systems and Control
Keyword: 
time difference of arrivalangle of arrivalconstrained least squarelocalizationCRLB
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(658.3KB)

Propagation Channel Interpolation for Fingerprint-Based Localization of Illegal Radios
Azril HANIZ Gia Khanh TRAN Ryosuke IWATA Kei SAKAGUCHI Jun-ichi TAKADA Daisuke HAYASHI Toshihiro YAMAGUCHI Shintaro ARATA 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2015/12/01
Vol. E98-B  No. 12 ; pp. 2508-2519
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Sensing
Keyword: 
propagation channelfrequency interpolationspatial interpolationurban environmentillegal radiolocalizationfingerprint
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(3.1MB)

Localizing Sensors from Their Responses to Targets
Shigeo SHIODA 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2015/01/01
Vol. E98-B  No. 1 ; pp. 145-152
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Position Papers Exploring Innovative Intelligence and Technologies in Communications)
Category: 
Keyword: 
sensorlocalizationrange freetarget detectionoptimization
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(1.4MB)

Positioning Method by Two GNSS Satellites and Distance Sensor in Urban Area
Hiroyuki HATANO Tomoya KITANI Masahiro FUJII Atsushi ITO Yu WATANABE Hironobu ONISHI Toru AOKI 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2015/01/01
Vol. E98-A  No. 1 ; pp. 275-283
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Intelligent Transport Systems)
Category: 
Keyword: 
GNSSGPSGlobal Positioning SystemlocalizationmultipathNLOSshielded signals
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(1.8MB)

Indoor Localization Algorithm for TDOA Measurement in NLOS Environments
Xiaosheng YU Chengdong WU Long CHENG 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2014/05/01
Vol. E97-A  No. 5 ; pp. 1149-1152
Type of Manuscript:  LETTER
Category: Graphs and Networks
Keyword: 
localizationwireless sensor networkultrasoundvoting matrixresidual weighting algorithm
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(533KB)

Performance Evaluation on RSSI-Based Wireless Capsule Endoscope Location Tracking with Particle Filter
Takahiro ITO Daisuke ANZAI Jianqing WANG 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2014/03/01
Vol. E97-B  No. 3 ; pp. 579-586
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Information and Communication Technology for Medical and Healthcare Applications in Conjunction with Main Topics of ISMICT2013)
Category: 
Keyword: 
implant BANslocalizationtrackingRSSImaximum likelihood estimationfinite impulse response filterparticle filter
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(1.2MB)

Doppler Shift Based Target Localization Using Semidefinite Relaxation
Yan Shen DU Ping WEI Wan Chun LI Hong Shu LIAO 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2014/01/01
Vol. E97-A  No. 1 ; pp. 397-400
Type of Manuscript:  LETTER
Category: Digital Signal Processing
Keyword: 
Doppler frequency shift (DFS)localizationmaximum likelihood estimation (MLE)semidefinite programming (SDP)
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(227KB)

Retrieval and Localization of Multiple Specific Objects with Hough Voting Based Ranking and A Contrario Decision
Pradit MITTRAPIYANURUK Pakorn KAEWTRAKULPONG 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2013/12/01
Vol. E96-A  No. 12 ; pp. 2717-2727
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Vision
Keyword: 
recognitionlocalizationdetectionimage retrievalobject retrievalscalablelarge scalebag of visual wordHough votinga contrario
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(4.5MB)

Utilizing Multiple Data Sources for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Support Vector Machines
Prakit JAROENKITTICHAI Ekachai LEELARASMEE 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2013/11/01
Vol. E96-A  No. 11 ; pp. 2081-2088
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Smart Multimedia & Communication Systems)
Category: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
Keyword: 
localizationsupport vector machinesmultiple data sourcesmultiple transmission powermutual information
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(2.3MB)

Performance Evaluation on RSSI-Based Localization for Capsule Endoscopy Systems with 400 MHz MICS Band Signals
Daisuke ANZAI Sho AOYAMA Jianqing WANG 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2012/10/01
Vol. E95-B  No. 10 ; pp. 3081-3087
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Medical Information Communication Technology for Disaster Recovery and Human Health Care Support)
Category: 
Keyword: 
implant BANslocalizationRSSI
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(1.3MB)

An Adaptive Multi-Range-Sensing Method for 3D Localization of Passive RFID Tags
Tomotaka WADA Toshihiro HORI Manato FUJIMOTO Kouichi MUTSUURA Hiromi OKADA 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2012/06/01
Vol. E95-A  No. 6 ; pp. 1074-1083
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
Keyword: 
RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification)localizationpassive RFID tagtransmission power
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(2.8MB) | Errata[Uploaded on July 1,2013]

Localization of Radiation Integrals Using the Fresnel Zone Numbers
Takayuki KOHAMA Makoto ANDO 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics
Publication Date: 2012/05/01
Vol. E95-C  No. 5 ; pp. 928-935
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Electromagnetic Theory
Keyword: 
physical opticsmethod of momentsFresnel zone numberlocalizationmodified surface-normal vectors
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(3MB)

Reduction Processing of the Position Estimation Error Using Transmitted Directivity Information
Hiroyuki HATANO Tomoharu MIZUTANI Yoshihiko KUWAHARA 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2012/01/01
Vol. E95-A  No. 1 ; pp. 286-295
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Intelligent Transport Systems)
Category: ITS
Keyword: 
position estimationlocalizationradar networksensor networkdirectivity
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(1.7MB)

Target Position Estimation Algorithm under Corrupted Measurement Data for Radar Network Systems
Hiroyuki HATANO Tomoharu MIZUTANI Kazuya SUGIYAMA Yoshihiko KUWAHARA 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2012/01/01
Vol. E95-A  No. 1 ; pp. 317-321
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section LETTER (Special Section on Intelligent Transport Systems)
Category: ITS
Keyword: 
target position estimationlocalizationradar networkmultipath
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(552.1KB)

Localization Using a Mobile Beacon with Directional Antenna for Wireless Sensor Networks
Yao-Hung WU Wei-Mei CHEN 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems
Publication Date: 2011/12/01
Vol. E94-D  No. 12 ; pp. 2370-2377
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Networking)
Category: 
Keyword: 
wireless sensor networkinglocalizationmobile beacondirectional antennaGPS
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(862.4KB)

A Simplified 3D Localization Scheme Using Flying Anchors
Quan Trung HOANG Yoan SHIN 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2011/12/01
Vol. E94-B  No. 12 ; pp. 3588-3591
Type of Manuscript:  LETTER
Category: Network
Keyword: 
three dimensionallocalizationflying anchorwireless sensor network
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(346KB)

Global Selection vs Local Ordering of Color SIFT Independent Components for Object/Scene Classification
Dan-ni AI Xian-hua HAN Guifang DUAN Xiang RUAN Yen-wei CHEN 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems
Publication Date: 2011/09/01
Vol. E94-D  No. 9 ; pp. 1800-1808
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Pattern Recognition
Keyword: 
independent component analysislocalizationsparsenessSIFTcolorobject/scene classification
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(2.6MB)

TDoA Localization Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in UWB Systems
Tan N. LE Jaewoon KIM Yoan SHIN 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2011/07/01
Vol. E94-B  No. 7 ; pp. 2013-2021
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Wireless Communication Technologies
Keyword: 
localizationTDoAUWBPSO
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(898.5KB)

Enhanced DV-Hop Algorithm with Reduced Hop-Size Error in Ad Hoc Networks
Sang-Woo LEE Dong-Yul LEE Chae-Woo LEE 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2011/07/01
Vol. E94-B  No. 7 ; pp. 2130-2132
Type of Manuscript:  LETTER
Category: Network
Keyword: 
localizationrange-freeDV-hoppositioning
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(320.7KB)

Localization with Ratio-Distance (LRD) for Distributed and Accurate Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Kouakou Jean Marc ATTOUNGBLE Kazunori OKADA 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2011/07/01
Vol. E94-B  No. 7 ; pp. 1944-1951
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Network
Keyword: 
wireless sensor networklocalizationtrilaterationpositioningaccuracy
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(1.1MB)

A Novel Communication Range Recognition (CRR) Scheme for Spatial Localization of Passive RFID Tags
Tomotaka WADA Norie UCHITOMI Yuuki OTA Toshihiro HORI Kouichi MUTSUURA Hiromi OKADA 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2010/09/01
Vol. E93-A  No. 9 ; pp. 1660-1669
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Mobile Information Network and Personal Communications
Keyword: 
RFID readerRFID taglocalizationcommunication range recognitionestimated position error
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(1.6MB)

Location Error Detection and Compensation for IEEE 802.15.4a Networks in Indoor Environments
Youngbae KONG Junseok KIM Younggoo KWON Gwitae PARK 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2010/08/01
Vol. E93-B  No. 8 ; pp. 2077-2081
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section LETTER (Special Section on Implementation, Experiments, and Practice for Ad Hoc and Mesh Networks)
Category: 
Keyword: 
IEEE 802.15.4alocalizationnon-line-of-sightKalman filter
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(434KB)

Autonomous Navigation System for Mobile Robot Using Randomly Distributed Passive RFID Tags
Sunhong PARK Shuji HASHIMOTO 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2010/04/01
Vol. E93-A  No. 4 ; pp. 711-719
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Intelligent Transport Systems)
Category: 
Keyword: 
autonomous navigationread timelocalizationpassive RFIDmobile robot
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(1.2MB)

Signal Subspace Interpolation from Discrete Measurement Samples in Constructing a Database for Location Fingerprint Technique
Panarat CHERNTANOMWONG Jun-ichi TAKADA Hiroyuki TSUJI 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2009/09/01
Vol. E92-B  No. 9 ; pp. 2922-2930
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Antennas and Propagation
Keyword: 
localizationfingerprint techniquearray antennasignal subspace
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(795.6KB)

Area Concentric Beacons Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks
Qing ZHOU Depeng JIN Li SU Lieguang ZENG 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2009/08/01
Vol. E92-A  No. 8 ; pp. 2151-2154
Type of Manuscript:  LETTER
Category: Measurement Technology
Keyword: 
localizationwireless sensor networksconcentricbeaconspositioning
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(139.1KB)

Localization of Living-Bodies Using Single-Frequency Multistatic Doppler Radar System
Takashi MIWA Shun OGIWARA Yoshiki YAMAKOSHI 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2009/07/01
Vol. E92-B  No. 7 ; pp. 2468-2476
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Sensing
Keyword: 
localizationDoppler radarmultistatic radarMUSIC algorithm
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(1.2MB)

Accurate Sensor Position Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Neighborhood Relationship
Yong-Qian CHEN Young-Kyoung KIM Sang-Jo YOO 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2008/09/01
Vol. E91-B  No. 9 ; pp. 2907-2916
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Network
Keyword: 
localizationpositioningoverlapping connectivitywireless sensor network
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(807.7KB)

An Improved DV-Hop Localization Algorithm with Reduced Node Location Error for Wireless Sensor Networks
Hongyang CHEN Kaoru SEZAKI Ping DENG Hing Cheung SO 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2008/08/01
Vol. E91-A  No. 8 ; pp. 2232-2236
Type of Manuscript:  LETTER
Category: Digital Signal Processing
Keyword: 
DV-Hoplocalizationwireless sensor networks
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(200KB)

Neighbor-Aided Authentication Watermarking Based on a Chaotic System with Feedback
Rongrong NI Qiuqi RUAN 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems
Publication Date: 2008/08/01
Vol. E91-D  No. 8 ; pp. 2196-2198
Type of Manuscript:  LETTER
Category: Application Information Security
Keyword: 
authenticationchaotic systemlocalizationneighbor-aidedfeedback
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(253.5KB)

An Adaptive Likelihood Distribution Algorithm for the Localization of Passive RFID Tags
Yuuki OTA Toshihiro HORI Taiki ONISHI Tomotaka WADA Kouichi MUTSUURA Hiromi OKADA 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2008/07/01
Vol. E91-A  No. 7 ; pp. 1666-1675
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Multi-dimensional Mobile Information Networks)
Category: 
Keyword: 
RFID readerRFID taglocalizationlikelihood distributionestimated position error
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(1.7MB)

A Novel Manifold Learning Algorithm for Localization Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks
Shancang LI Deyun ZHANG 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2007/12/01
Vol. E90-B  No. 12 ; pp. 3496-3500
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section LETTER (Special Section on Ubiquitous Sensor Networks)
Category: 
Keyword: 
wireless sensor networklocalizationmanifold algorithm
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(266.8KB)

An Approach to Solve Local Minimum Problem in Sound Source and Microphone Localization
Kazunori KOBAYASHI Ken'ichi FURUYA Yoichi HANEDA Akitoshi KATAOKA 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2007/12/01
Vol. E90-A  No. 12 ; pp. 2826-2834
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Engineering Acoustics
Keyword: 
microphone arraylocalizationlocal minimumteleconference
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(982.5KB)

High-Speed Power-Line Communication and Its Application to a Localization System
Shinji TSUZUKI 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2006/11/01
Vol. E89-A  No. 11 ; pp. 3006-3012
Type of Manuscript:  INVITED PAPER (Special Section on Wide Band Systems)
Category: 
Keyword: 
power-line communication (PLC)broadband over power-line (BPL)home networkstandardizationsensor networklocalization
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(271.2KB)

A Localization Scheme for Sensor Networks Based on Wireless Communication with Anchor Groups
Hiroyuki OCHI Shigeaki TAGASHIRA Satoshi FUJITA 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems
Publication Date: 2006/05/01
Vol. E89-D  No. 5 ; pp. 1614-1621
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Challenges in Ad-hoc and Multi-hop Wireless Communications)
Category: 
Keyword: 
sensor networkslocalizationrange-freenesspoint-in-triangulation testBluetooth
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(261.6KB)

Resonance Analysis of Multilayered Filters with Triadic Cantor-Type One-Dimensional Quasi-Fractal Structures
Ushio SANGAWA 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics
Publication Date: 2005/10/01
Vol. E88-C  No. 10 ; pp. 1981-1991
Type of Manuscript:  PAPER
Category: Electromagnetic Theory
Keyword: 
multilayered filterfractalCantor setClifford algebraγ matriceslocalizationself-similaritystage number
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(934.9KB)

Increase in Binaural Articulation Score by Simulated Localization Using Head-Related Transfer Function
Shinji HAYASHI 
Publication:   IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 1992/02/25
Vol. E75-A  No. 2 ; pp. 149-154
Type of Manuscript:  Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Fundamentals of Next Generation Human Interface)
Category: 
Keyword: 
head-related transfer functionlocalizationphoneme articulationinverse filtercacktail party effect
 Summary | Full Text:PDF(392.3KB)